SPRAY LOCATIONS:
Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, May 1965 – May 1966
The Aberdeen Proving Ground is a United States Army facility located in Harford County, near Aberdeen, Maryland.  APG is located at 39°28′24″N 76°8′27″W / 39.47333°N 76.14083°W / 39.47333; -76.14083 and occupies a land area of 72,962 acres (114.0 sq mi; 295.3 km2). Its northernmost point is near the mouth of the Susquehanna River, where the river enters the Chesapeake Bay, while on the south, it is bordered by the Gunpowder River. The installation lies on two peninsulas separated by the Bush River. The northeastern is known as the Aberdeen Area and the southwestern is called the Edgewood Area
The Edgewood Chemical Activity is a chemical-weapons depot located at APG. Elimination of the chemicals held here was put on an accelerated schedule after September 11, 2001.

Adjacent to the Demilitarized Zone, Korea, 20 March 1968 – 1 July 1968

Apalachicola National Forest, Sophoppy, Florida

Arkansas Apalachicola National Forest, Sopchoppy, Florida, July 1967 – October 1967

Avon AFB, Florida
Avon Park Air Force Range is a 106,000-acre bombing and gunnery range located in Polk and Highlands Counties, Florida.
The Avon Park Air Force Range (APAFR), Operating Location Alpha (OL-A), is located approximately 100 miles east-southeast of MacDill AFB, Florida

Beaumont, Texas

Bound Brook, New Jersey, Reformulation of AO for Domestic or Foreign Use, April 1972 – January 1973

Brawley, California, July - August 1951
Activity Description: By the early 1950’s, the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T were being extensively evaluated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for their weed control properties. However, much of this work provided evidence that these same herbicides were detrimental to broadleaf crops, i.e., beans, soybeans, peppers, tomatoes, etc. Hence, the US Army Chemical Corps’ Biological Laboratories at Camp Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, initiated studies to determine application rates that could be used in tactical operations as anti-crop agents. Formulations of 2,4,D and 2,4,5-T were evaluated on small field plots of various agronomic crops in an effort to evaluate the anti-crop effectiveness of small droplet sprays of these herbicides.
Assessment: The Army Chemical Corps established a project agreement with Division of Weed Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering, USDA, to conduct studies on the toxicity to agronomic crops of various 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T formulations. The rates varied from 0.5 pounds (lbs) of active ingredient of the herbicide per acre (A) to 8 lbs/A. USDA personnel at the USDA Research Station at Brawley, California conducted all of the studies. Camp Detrick personnel provided project oversight and the formulations to be tested.

Bushnell Army Air Field, Florida, February - April 1945
Activity Description: The purpose of this research was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical vegetation by application of a chemical agent. The herbicidal agents evaluated included the acids of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T as 2% formulations in tributyl phosphate and diesel fuel. A total area of 382 acres (155 ha) was aerially sprayed, some areas receiving multiple applications.
Assessment: During the three-month period, a team (five military officers) from Camp Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, conducted preliminary screening of tropical plants obtained from the Plant Introduction Garden, Coconut Grove, Florida. Following the initial evaluations, aerial spray tests were conducted on “grids” of the natural vegetation adjacent to the runways on the Bushnell Army Air Field.Observations were made over the three-month period. The herbicides were formulated at Camp Detrick and transported to Bushnell Army Air Field.

Camp Detrick, Maryland

Dar and Prek Clong, Cambodia

Dugway, Utah, May 1951 – March 1959
Activity Description: Ten projects of chemical anti-crop agents were conducted on the Dugway Proving Ground, including tests with formulations of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, between 7 May 1951 and 23 March 1959.
Assessment: The series of tests were all conducted from a variety of platforms, including balloons, an experimental spray tower, light aircraft, and jet aircraft, and with a range of volumes from low volume to large capacity spray tank volumes. Studies were conducted on the effects of altitude and airspeed on the droplet behavior of chemical anti-crop agents. The formulations, including the butyl ester formulations of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, were prepared by the US Army Chemical Corps, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. Personnel were from the Chemical Corps or on detail from the United States Air Force.

Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah, September – October 1964
Activity Description: The objectives of the tests conducted on the Dugway Proving Ground during September and October 1965 were to determine the performance reliability, maintenance requirements, and suitability of the Army Interim Defoliant System for the US Army OV-1 (MOHAWK) aircraft.
Assessment: Six dissemination trials of the E44 Interim Defoliant System were conducted using two E44 spray tanks mounted under the wings of a US Army OV-1 (MOHAWK) aircraft. For each trial, Herbicide Orange was released at the deposition rate of 3 gallons/acre over an area of approximately 17 acres. In six trials, 935 gallons (17 drums) of Orange were disseminated on the test area. The trials were conducted by the US Army Chemical Corps’ Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Maryland, under an agreement with the US Army Test and Evaluation Command. The US Army Chemical Corps and the Dugway Proving Grounds provided all the personnel and tactical herbicides for the tests and evaluations.

Elgin AFB (Agents Orange and Blue) on Firing Range and Viet Cong Village
Eglin AFB, Florida, November - December 1952, March - April 1953
Activity Description: In preparation for the potential use of tactical herbicides for use as anti-crop agents, the Air Force Air Research and Development Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, tasked the Air Force Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, with the requirements for the design and procurement of a Large Capacity Spray System to used in the B-29, B-50, and C-119 bomber aircraft.
Assessment: In late 1952, a mixture of technical butyl 2,4-D (50%) and technical butyl 2,4,5-T (30%) and technical isobutyl 2,4,5-T (20%) was aerially sprayed from altitudes of 100-1000 feet at an airspeed of 200 mph. Tank size varied between 125-640 gallons. Spray systems were tested for B-29, B-50, and C-119 aircraft. The total spray area was 8,700 acres. This is first documented use of the Purple formulation. In the 1953 tests, the ester formulation was aerially sprayed from a B-29 and a C- 119 aircraft from altitudes of 1,000-2,000 feet. Tank size was 1,000 gallons in both aircraft. 8,500 gallons of herbicide were released at a rate of 0.34 lbs/A on 8,000 acres of both test areas. A small number of Air Force, Army, and contractor personnel were involved in the operations. The formulation was furnished by the US Army Chemical Corps, Camp Detrich, Frederick, Maryland.

Eglin AFB, Florida, Test Area C-52A and Hardstand 7, March 1962 – January 1971
Activity Description: The training of the aircrews, the development of the interface between the aircraft and the spray equipment, and the test and evaluation of the entire aerial spray system were the responsibilities of United States Air Force’s Air Development Test Center (ADTC), at Eglin Air Force Base (AFB). For ten years (1961-1971), the Air Force Armament Laboratory at Eglin AFB provided the scientific, engineering, and technical support for Operation RANCH HAND in Vietnam. One of the most important aspects in the development of aerial spray systems was testing of the equipment under the most realistic conditions possible. An array of test grids was developed where the aircraft and equipment could be monitored and evaluated using the actual herbicides that were deployed for use in Vietnam. The goal was not to test the effectiveness of the herbicides, but rather the effectiveness of the aircraft and spray equipment in disseminating a concentration of herbicide that would be effective in defoliating jungle vegetation.
Assessment: During the 10-year period, four test grids, each uniquely arrayed to match the needs of either fixed-wing, helicopter, or high performance jet aircraft, were established and operated within the boundary of Test Area C-52A. During the years of its operation, an area of less than 1 square mile of the Test Area received 15,455 gallons of Herbicide Purple (281 drums) and 18,975 gallons of Herbicide Orange (345 drums), 4,400 gallons of Herbicide Blue (80 drums). Spray equipment tests and evaluations of the more than 400 missions over the Test Area were generally scheduled and conducted with environmental conditions optimal for spray operations. The total estimated flight time spent dispensing herbicides over the four test arrays was 235 hours.

The program terminated in the spring of 1971, and Test Area C-52A was set-a-side as a unique research site for the environmental impacts of tactical herbicides and the associated dioxin. In 1978, following the conclusion of many ecological and environmental studies, the entire area was fenced and restricted from public access. The decision by the ADTC to allow natural attenuation to clean the ecosystem of chemical residues prevented a major reclamation operation of an area of more 400 acres.

In support of the test and evaluation programs on Test Area C-52A, ADTC established a herbicide storage and aircraft loading site at Hardstand 7, an asphalt and concrete aircraft parking area located west of the North-South Runway on the main Eglin AFB Airdrome. Hardstand 7 was the herbicide-loading site for the approximately 400 aerial missions in support of the aircraft and spray equipment tested on the Test Area. In 1974, 130 drums of Herbicide Orange were removed from the Hardstand to the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Gulfport, MS for final disposition

In the first years of the test program on Test Area C-52A, numerous US Army Chemical Corps personnel were involved in the operations. By 1963, Air Force Armament Laboratory military, civilian, and contractor personnel were involved in the handling and test operations. Hundreds of military and civilian personnel were involved in the Eglin AFB Test Programs, and subsequent ecological studies over the years from 1963 to 1983.

Fort Chaffee, near Fort Smith, Arkansas, July 1967 – October 1967
Activity Description: During the period December 1966 to October 1967, the newly named "Plant Science Laboratories" at Fort Detrick initiated a comprehensive short-term project to evaluate desiccants and herbicidal mixtures as rapid-acting defoliants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate rapid-acting desiccants as defoliants and to assess the defoliation response of woody vegetation to mixtures of herbicides and/or desiccants. The criteria for assessment was based principally on rapidity of action, but included other features such as safety and ease of handling, compatibility with dissemination systems, and low toxicity to man and wildlife. The approach to the objective of an improved rapid-acting defoliant involved three phases: (1) evaluation of commercially available rapid desiccants or contact herbicides; (2) evaluation of improved formulations of rapid desiccants developed under industry contacts and by in-house effort; (3) development and evaluation of desiccant-herbicide
mixtures containing the rapid defoliant characteristics with the sustained long-term effects of Orange and other Tactical Herbicides. The project required an immediate access to a diversity of woody vegetation. Accordingly, Fort Detrick arranged for test locations at Fort Gordon near Augusta, Georgia; Fort Chaffee near Fort Smith, Arkansas, and Apalachicola National Forest near Sopchoppy, Florida. The Georgia site was described as a warm temperate, humid, moderate rainfall climate with deep, well-drained sands in rolling topography. The vegetation type was an oakhickory pine forest. The Arkansas site was described as a temperate continental, moderate rainfall climate with fine sandy loam soils in rolling topography. The vegetation type was an oak-hickory forest. The Apalachicola National Forest site was described as a subtropical, humid, moderate precipitation climate with sandy soils in a flat poorly drained topography. The vegetation type was described as a Southern mixed forest. All sites were selected because of their isolation from any local human populations, e.g., in Florida, the site was a ridge located in a swamp forest. Assessment: The desiccants selected for evaluation included Herbicide Blue (a tactical herbicide), and the commercial desiccants diquat, paraquat, dinitrobutylphenol 50 (DNBP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), hexachloroacetone (HCA), and monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), pentachloro-pentenoic acid (AP-20), endothall, and various mixed formulations of these desiccants. The systemic herbicides included the two tactical herbicides Orange and White; the potassium salt, triisopropanolamine salts, and the isooctyl ester of picloram; and, a ethylhexyl ester of 2,4,5-T mixed with HCA. Mixtures of propanil, nitrophenol, linuron, and silvex were also evaluated. All chemicals were furnished by Fort Detrick. Aerial application at these three sites were made with a Bell G-2 helicopter equipped with two 40-gallon tanks and a 26-foot boom with 6-inch nozzle positions adaptable for volume deliveries of 3, 6, or 10 gallons per acre in a 50-foot swath. Spray equipment, pilot, and support were furnished under contract with Allied Helicopter Service of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Aerial applications were made on duplicate 3-acre plots, 200 by 660 feet in dimension. A sampling and evaluation trail was established in each plot on a diagonal beginning at 100 feet from one corner. Major species were marked along 500 feet of this transect and individual plants were identified by combinations of colored plastic ribbons.
A minimum of 10 individuals of each species was marked unless fewer were present. Evaluations were made at 1-, 5-, 10-, 30-, and 60-day intervals by experienced Fort Detrick personnel. At each evaluation period the identical marked individuals of the major species were rated for defoliation and desiccation. At each location, approximately 475 gallons (~10 drums) of Herbicide At each location, approximately 475 gallons (~10 drums) of Herbicide Blue, 95 gallons (~2 drums) of Herbicide Orange, and 6 gallons of Herbicide White were expended.
The assistance of Department of Army forestry personnel at Fort Gordon, Fort Chaffee, and the 3rd and 4th Army Headquarters were acknowledged in the report for their support in the selection and preparation of sites in Georgia and Arkansas. The land and facilities for the Florida tests were provided by the Supervisor, Apalachicola National Forest, Tallahassee, Florida. Personnel from the Physical Sciences Division, Fort Detrick assisted in the development of formulations and preparations of field test mixtures. They also provided the data on the physical characteristics of the candidate tactical defoliants and mixtures

Fort Detrick, Area B, Frederick, Maryland, June – July 1953
Activity Description: Experiments were conducted on field grown crops to determine the feasibility of using an experimental spray tower mounted on a pickup truck to simulate aerial spray applications of chemical anti-crop agents. In addition,
since anti-crop agents were to be deployed from a bomber aircraft, it was essential to obtain crop yield data when sprays were applied under simulated tactical operational conditions.
Assessment: The tests were conducted on Area B, Camp Detrick, Maryland, The Purple mixture of technical butyls of 2,4-D/2,4,5-T was applied to 1-acre plots of soybeans and sweet potatoes at a rate of 0.05 lbs/A. The chemical mixture was sprayed from a 20-foot tower mounted on a pickup truck. The agent was applied in the evening under inversion conditions, and with a wind velocity between 2 and 3 mph and a direction parallel to the crop rows. Chemical Corps personnel were responsible for both the spray operations and the preparation and handling of the tactical herbicide.

Fort Drum, New York, May – October 1959 (testing)
Activity Description: The basic consideration in aerial applications of liquid sprays for vegetation control is to secure maximum deposition of the delivered agent on the selected target. In the summer of 1959, a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T formulation was evaluated for its operational use in defoliating or killing trees growing in an area of about four square miles in an impact zone (an area receiving explosive ordnance) at Camp Drum, New York.
Assessment: Thirteen drums (715 gallons) of the concentrated butyl esters of 2,4,D and 2,4,5-T (Herbicide Purple formulation) were aerially applied by helicopter over 2,560 acres of Fort Drum’s deciduous forested area in the summer of 1959. The area selected for treatment was an area isolated from combat maneuvers. The tests were conducted by US Army Chemical Corps personnel, and the Purple Herbicide formulation was surplus herbicide from an inventory manufactured in 1953-1954 period for potential use in the Korean Conflict. The rates of deposition and the flow rate calculations were instrumental in subsequent defoliation tests in both the Continental United States and in Southeast Asia.

Fort Gordon, Augusta, Georgia, July 1967 – October 1967

Fort Meade, Maryland, 1963 – 1964
Activity Description: The search for effective defoliants prior to Vietnam focused primarily on the effectiveness of the phenoxy herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Thus Herbicide Purple was the earliest formulation that was considered appropriate for use in Vietnam. However, the Crops Division of the US Army Biological Laboratories continued its search for other potential defoliants that could be used in Vietnam. This effort was both an in-house program at Fort Detrick, and a contractual program managed by Fort Detrick. By the early 1960s, the knowledge and experience in synthesizing and evaluating various chemicals with herbicidal properties was located primarily with the Chemical Companies that were developing new pesticides for agricultural use. Thus, in 1963, the Army Chemical Corps sponsored the first of three “Defoliation Conferences”. The First Defoliation Conference was held at Fort Detrick on 29-30 July 1963. At this Conference, the major pesticide producers in the United States were invited to participate. The concept was that the companies through contractual agreements would synthesize new potential compounds and that Fort Detrick would screen these compounds for the necessarily biological activity. The screening program by Fort Detrick was carried out in three phases: primary screening on 14 day-old Black Valentine beans at 0.1 and 1.0 pounds per acre (lbs/A); secondary screening of the most promising chemicals sprayed in the greenhouse at 1, 5, and 10 lbs/A on maple, spruce, pine, locust, privet, pin oak, hemlock, and elm seedlings; and, the third phase consisted of field screening. Some initial field screening occurred at Fort Detrick. Subsequent field screening was conducted at Fort Ritchie and Fort Meade in Maryland, geographically not far from Fort Detrick, but on Military Reservations sufficiently large to permit spraying individual trees or small plots in areas isolated and restricted from public access. The field screening was used to answer the question: “At what rate are certain compounds effective, if not effective at 5 or 10 lbs/A?”
Assessment: The 1963 tests at Fort Ritchee consisted of spraying various rates of picloram, 2,4-D, Herbicide Orange, diquat, endothal, and combinations of each of these on 108 individual trees consisting of ash, elm, and locust. The 1963 field tests at Fort Meade consisted of spraying 24 plots, each 225 square feet, with cacodylic acid, Dowco 173, and butynediol at 10, 25, 40, 55, 70, 85, and 100 lbs/A on 15 species of trees, including scrub pine, maples, oaks, American chestnut, sweet gum, tulip poplar, quaking 29 aspen, and vaccinium. The 1963 tests confirmed the selectivity and effectiveness of a combination of picloram-2, 4-D (subsequently later labeled Herbicide White), and a water-soluble sodium formulation of cacodylic acid (subsequently later labeled Herbicide Blue). The 1964 field trials continued the evaluation of various “new” compounds that were sprayed on 105 plots, each 225 square feet, with 52 different compounds and formulations at 5 and 10 lbs/A.

Because the trees and plots at Fort Ritchie and Fort Meade were spread over a considerable area, and the terrain was frequently very rough, the spray system consisted of 3-gallon tank sprayer with a 20-foot hose and a 9-foot stainless steel wand having a 20-inch boom with three No.2 Whirljet nozzles. The compounds and formulations were carefully weighed to the desired rates in the laboratory at Fort Detrick, and then poured into the tank sprayer with just enough diluent to cover a plot or an individual tree. The sprayers were outfitted with pressure gauges so that each tree could be sprayed at 30 lbs pressure. Spraying was done from a large tank truck so that the spray was directed down on the foliage to more closely simulate aerial spraying. All personnel involved in the handling and spraying of the chemicals were military and civilians assigned at Fort Detrick.

Fort Ritchie, Cascade, Maryland, April 1956 – September 1957 and 1963 – 1964
Activity Description: In 1956 and 1957, 577 chemicals were screened for the best available tactical defoliants, desiccants, and vegetation control agents. Selection of suitable agents was determined by evaluating environmental conditions, spray techniques, and formulations that increased the effectiveness of the defoliants and desiccants.
Assessment: Selected coniferous and deciduous trees native to the Fort Ritchie Reservation, Cascade, Maryland, were selected for treatment with 5, 60, 500, and 1,000 parts-per-million (ppm) applications of various 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T formulations. All applications were done by hand application. Sprays with the technical butyl esters of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T were found to be most effective as defoliants. The applications of the tactical herbicides and the preparation of the formulations were the responsible of the personnel from the Biological Warfare Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Maryland.

Fort Smith, July 1967 – October 1967

Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

Gagetown Base, New Brunswick, Canada, June 14-17, 1966 and June 21-24, 1967
Activity Description: The successful screening of tactical herbicides in Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee, Florida, and Maryland prompted the Fort Detrick personnel to seek a site outside the Continental United States to evaluate a selection of tactical and commercial herbicides on a mixed hardwood-conifer forest. Following discussions with Canadian Military Forces, a decision was made to evaluate an array of herbicides on vegetation of the Canadian Forces Base Gagetown, New Brunswick, Canada. Base Gagetown contained 427 square miles, of which 80% was heavily forested. The site for the 1966 trials was located in the western portion of Base Gagetown between Broad Road and Blissville Road. The test site was an undisturbed forest consisting of a mixture of conifers (fir, spruce, and pine) and broadleaf deciduous species (maple, alder, and beach) ranging in height from about 20 to 75 feet. It was approximately 4 miles long by 1,200 feet wide. Because of terrain and surrounding swamp, only tracked vehicles were able to navigate through the mud and mire to the test site. The base of operation was the Blissville Air Strip, located approximately 4 miles from the test site. The test area for the 1967 field trials was located approximately 10 miles from the nearest border of the military reservation. Specifically, the test site was located on Rippon Road and east of Broad Road, and consisted of a densely wooded area dominated by broadleaf deciduous species and fir, spruce, and pines. Fifty plots, each 200 by 660 feet (3 acres) with a 200-foot buffer zone between adjacent plots, were laid out on both sides of Rippon Road. As in 1966, the base of operation was the Blissville Air Strip, located approximately 4 miles from the test site.
Assessment of 1966 Field Trials: A total of 116 plots, each 200 by 600 feet with a 100-foot buffer strip between plots, were marked off along both sides of an east-west oriented trail through the forested area. The corners of each plot were delineated by strips of colored surveyor’s tape, and were marked with a 6-inch-square aluminum plate identifying the plot. A US Army helicopter equipped with a HIDAL spraying system consisting of a 200-gallon fiberglass tank, an electrically driven centrifugal pump, and two booms, each approximately 25 feet long. The booms were fitted with 15 check values on 6-inch spacing with each value fitted with a Teejet nozzle tip. The helicopter was flown at treetop level at 65 knots airspeed during the three days of spray operation. Plots were flagged for the pilot with telescopic fiberglass poles that extended to a height of 50 feet with fluorescent orange flags attached. The compounds were applied at rates of 1, 2, 3, or 4 gallons per acre on duplicate plots. Because the HIDAL system was calibrated to deliver 1 gallon per acre, the pilot had to fly over the same area two to four times to deliver the higher rates. Spraying began on 14 June 1966 when new leaves were fully expanded and the trees actively growing. Spraying was done during a stationary low pressure atmospheric condition when there was little or no wind so that spraying was continuous from daylight to dark for 3 successive days, thereby completing 107 plots in about 30 hours actual flying time. The remaining nine plots were left as check plots.

Of the nine compounds tested, four contained 2,4,5-T. They were described as Orange (50:50 mixture of n-butyl esters of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T), Purple (50% n-butyl ester 2,4-D, 30% n-butyl ester of 2,4,5-T, and 20% isobutyl ester of 2,4,5-T), 70:30 Mixture (70-30 mixture of n-butyl esters of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T), and M-2993 (1:4 mixture of isooctyl ester of picloram + propylene glycol butyl ether ester of 2,4,5-T).

Of the 107 plots receiving herbicides, 46 plots received 2,4,5-T at varying rates. Thus for the entire experiment, 55 gallons (1 drum) of Orange were sprayed on 14 plots (38.5 acres), 55 gallons of Purple (1 drum) were sprayed on 14 plots (38.5 acres), 50 gallons of 70:30 Mixture were sprayed on 12 plots (33 acres), and 12 gallons of M-2993 on 6 plots (16.5 acres). The 46 plots received a total of 172 gallons of 2,4,5-T containing herbicide, or approximately 800 pounds of 2,4,5-T as the butyl ester or butyl ether ester sprayed on 126.5 acres which equates to approximately 6 pounds of 2,4,5-T per acre aerially applied at tree-top level.

The authors acknowledged the two men who piloted the helicopter, and a Canadian Major who assisted the two researchers in the field as a Range Officer. They also acknowledged the “enlisted men” of the Royal Canadian Army Service, the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, and the Air Observation Post. Presumably the enlisted men may have been involved in the logistical operations of receiving and transport of the herbicide to the airfield and in assisting the loading of the aircraft. The isolation of the site and how the operation was conducted suggested that few men outside of the Fort Detrick Research Team would have been involved in the actual spraying of the herbicides.

Assessment for the 1967 Field Trials: The plots were sprayed by a Bell G-2 helicopter fitted with two 40-gallon saddle tanks and a 24-foot boom with nozzle spacing every 6 inches along the boom. The system was calibrated to deliver 3 gallons
per acre at an altitude of 10 to 15 feet above the tops of the trees while flying at 40 knots
indicated air speed. The resultant spray swath was 50 feet. Fifteen herbicides were applied by helicopter on duplicate 3-acre plots at a volume of 3 gallons per acre. The original plan was to spray duplicate plots at 3, 6, and 10 gallons per acre, but due to unfavorable weather conditions only treatments at 3 gallons per acre were applied. Of the 15 herbicides used in this experiment, only 2 contained 2,4,5-T herbicide; Orange and a material labeled as HCA + T (hexachloroacteone + 2,4,5-T, formulated to contain 2 pounds HCA and 2 pounds 2,4,5-T per gallon). One of the other materials sprayed on duplicate plots was pentachlorophenol, although not containing 2,4,5-T it was likely contaminated with dioxin and furan congeners.

Orange was sprayed on a total of 6 acres at a rate of 3 gallons per acre for a total quantity of 18 gallons of herbicide, or approximately 90 pounds of 2,4,5-T, or 15 pounds of nbutyl 2,4,5-T/acre. HCA + T was also sprayed on 6 acres for a total of 24 pounds of 2,4,5-T or 4 pounds of 2,4,5-T/acre. The pentachlorophenol was applied at 12 pounds/acre. All of the other herbicides were commercial products, but not containing 2,4,5-T. The flagging to identify individual plots by the helicopter pilots was done by the use of telescopic fiberglass poles that extended to a height of 50 feet with fluorescent orange flags attached. These were fixed and not held by ground crew. Because the treatment plots were located on both sides of Rippon Road, access to the plots was easier than in the 1966 studies. The authors acknowledged the cooperation of Base Gagetown Commanding Officer, the Range Officer, and the assistance of enlisted personnel.

Georgia Power Company Right-of-Way, May 1964 – October 1965
Activity Description: The successful screening of candidate defoliants at Fort Ritchie and Fort Meade prompted Fort Detrick personnel to seek additional sites where a more extensive evaluation could be conducted on Herbicide Orange, Picloram-2,4-D (Herbicide White formulation), and with various combinations of the commercial herbicides diquat and dicamba. The objective of the field tests was to evaluate these formulations under field conditions against the standard tactical herbicide “Purple”. The Crops Division arranged with Georgia Power Company and Tennessee Valley Authority for the use of 65 acres of right-of-way through the swamps of Georgia, and additional 65 acres of right-of-way in the mountains of Tennessee. The test sites selected in Georgia were characterized by swamp forest vegetation with a long, hot, growing season and ample water available for active growth. Typically, the level of water in the swamp was between 6 and 24 inches. Sections of the right-of-ways for the Valdosta- Thomasville Power Line and the Bonaire Power Line near Macon were selected for treatment. In Tennessee, a section of the 200-foot right-of-way provided by the Tennessee Valley Authority was in a mountainous area and on a power line between Hiwassee Dam, North Carolina, and Coker Creek, Tennessee.
Assessment: The aerial spray tests conducted on these transmission line right-ofways were by helicopter. In Georgia, six plots, each 60 by 2,640 feet, were treated on the Valdosta-Thomasville line, which had a 60-foot right-of-way. On the Bonaire line, with 200-foot wide right-of-way, seven plots were established each 200 feet wide and 700 feet long. At both locations, Herbicides Orange and Purple were applied at 10 lbs/A. The proposed Herbicide White formulation was applied at 4 lbs/A picloram and 11 lbs/A 2,4- D. In the aerial tests in Tennessee, the plots were difficult to mark because of the mountainous terrain, and thus the right-of-way (approximately 3 acres between adjacent powerline towers), served as the tests plots. The Orange and Purple Herbicides were applied at 4, 8, and 33 lbs/A. The proposed White formulation was sprayed at rates of 6.25, 11.50, 19.10, and 25.5 lbs/A. The plots in Georgia were sprayed on 20-23 May 1964. The plots in Tennessee were sprayed 17 June and 2-3 July 1964.

The Bell G-3 helicopter used in all tests was equipped with two 60-gallon saddle tanks and a 24-foot boom rigged amidship. Twenty-four D-8 nozzles without swirl plates were placed on 1-foot centers along the boom. The helicopter sprayed a 50-foot swath at an altitude of approximately 60 feet above the ground. All applications were made either just after sunrise or just before sunset when wind velocities were between 0 and 3 mph. Observations on all the plots in both Georgia and Tennessee were made over a period of one year. The Companies provided the helicopter and operators. The herbicide formulations and on-site personnel were provided by Fort Detrick.

Guajataca, Guanica, Toro Negro, El Verde, and Jimenez, June 1963 – October 1967

Guam from 1955 through 1960s (spraying).

Guanica, Puerto Rico

Gulfport, Mississippi, Storage and Operation PACER HO, Naval Construction Battalion Center, December 1968 – February 1989

Gulfport, Mississippi, Reprocessing of AO, May 1975 – March 1977

Huntington County State College, Pensylvania

Jacksonville, Arkansas, Fractionation of AO for Commercial Use, 14 March 1972 – January 1973

Jacksonville, Florida

Johnston Atoll (1972-1978) was used for unused AO storage.

Johnston Island, Storage and Operation PACER HO, April 1972 – June 2004

Joyuda, Puerto Rico

Kauai, Hawaii, 1 May 1967 – 30 June 1968
Activity Description: During the period December 1966 to October 1967, the newly named “Plant Science Laboratories” at Fort Detrick initiated a comprehensive short-term project to evaluate desiccants and herbicidal mixtures as rapid-acting defoliants. The objectives of these studies were to evaluate rapid-acting desiccants as defoliants and to assess the defoliation response of woody vegetation to mixtures of herbicides and/or desiccants. The criteria for assessment was based principally on rapidity of action, but included other features such as safety and ease of handling, compatibility with dissemination systems, and low toxicity to man and wildlife. The Kauai Branch Station of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station was selected as the site to evaluate tactical and commercial herbicides on tropical woody and forest vegetation.

This research was conducted by the Department of Agronomy and Soils of the University of Hawaii with oversight provided by the Plant Sciences Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Maryland. The primary purpose of the research was to evaluate a series of tactical herbicide formulations on tropical vegetation. It was conducted on the Island of Kauai at the Kauai Branch Station of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, at Kapaa, Hawaii. Four experimental sites (series) were selected for the evaluation of the herbicides. Three of the sites were in tropical vegetation within five miles of the experiment station and were located on the Wailua Game Refuge, Bauxite Reclamation Project, or the Department of Land and Natural Resources, respectively. The fourth site was located at Moalepe in the Wailua Game Refuge.
Assessment: As noted, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the rapidity of action and the degree and duration of defoliation and damage on trees and shrubs of Hawaii to aerial applications of selected chemicals and chemical mixtures. The investigations were divided into four categories or series of tests. The experimental plots ranged from 2-acre plots for Series I and II, to 5-acre plots in Series III, and 6-acre plots in Series IV. The 2,4,5-T related materials included Silvex, M-3140 formulation (picloram + 2,4,5-T), Orange Herbicide, Hexachloroacetone + 2,4,5-T, and M-3190 (picloram + 2,4,5-T + dalapon). Both Blue (Phytar 560G) and White (Tordon 101) were also evaluated in the series of tests

Approximately 111 acres of replicated plots out of 232 acres were treated with 2,4,5-T (51 gallons), Silvex (35.5 gallons), or Orange Herbicide (92.5 gallons) during the period from 24 July through 21 December 1967 (or approximately 1.7 gallons of active ingredient 2,4,5-T per acre). Blue was applied at 2, 4, or 6 gallons per acre (180 gallons), while White (tactical formulation M2628) was applied at 3 and 6 gallons per acre (54 gallons). All applications were done by a fixed-wing commercial applicator (Murryair, Ltd.) capable of applying a 40-foot swath and delivering either 3 or 6 gallons of formulation per acre. The vegetation in the various plots ranged in height from 3-6 feet for Lantana (Lantana camara) to more than 60 feet for Silveroak (Grevillea robusta). Although the plots were accessible by ground vehicles, they were in areas isolated from public access. The investigators reported that some drift did occur from the plots, especially those sprayed in the late fall. However, the drift was in the opposite direction of any private or commercial agricultural fields. All locations received heavy rainfalls within the first and second months following applications. Observations and vegetativeinjury ratings of the plots were obtained 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks following application, and on a monthly basis thereafter.

In all tests, precautions were taken in handing of chemicals. Each person was required to wear gloves, goggles, respirators, and aprons or coveralls. Aircraft props were cut-off during loading to ensure safety from chemical backwash and carelessness. The report did not state whether the flagman were required to wear the same safety gear. All excess herbicide in the aircraft tank and spray system was collected, transferred to steel 55- gallon drums, and buried. Empty containers were also buried immediately following completion of the spraying. The locations were not specified. The aircraft tank and spray system was rinsed once with diesel fuel (which was also collected and buried) and followed with a thorough washing. The exterior of the aircraft was also washed. All of the herbicidal chemicals were provided by the Department of the Army, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Three investigators from the University of Hawaii, one investigator from USDA, the pilot, and Experiment Station support personnel were involved in the tests and subsequent evaluations.

Kelly AFB, Texas

Kingston, Rhode Island

Kompong Cham province of Cambodia

Laos

La Jugua, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

Las Marias, Puerto Rico

Las Mesas Cerros, Puerto Rico

Loquillo, Puerto Rico

Mayaguez, Maricao, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico

Mauna Loa, Hilo, Hawaii

Middleport, New York, May – September 1965, July 1966
Activity Description: Under a January 1965 contract with the US Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Maryland, FMC Corporation conducted studies in an attempt to improve the herbicidal properties of the Herbicide Purple and Herbicide Orange formulations. Field plots of “several acres” were identified near the Niagara Chemical Division, FMC Corporation Facilities in Middleport, New York.
Assessment: Various esters (n-butyl, iso-butyl, iso-octyl) formulations of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T were mixed in “suspensions “ with auxiliary herbicides (e.g., dalapon,diuron, atrazine, ammonium thiocyanate, aminotriazole, and cacoylic acid) and evaluated for stability and phytotoxicity. Individual plots, dominated by deciduous brush, were seven feet square and a specified volumes equal to rates of 1 to 3 gallons per acre were administered by use of a spray gun. Five replications of each rate was tested, and observations taken throughout the seasons in 1965 and 1966. The two tactical herbicides Purple and Orange were provided by the Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, while the auxiliary herbicides were obtained from commercial sources. The researchers involved in the mixing of formulations and in the various tests were employees of the FMC Corporation.

Panama Canal Zone from 1960s to early 1970s

Pinal Mountains, Globe, Arizona

Painsville, Ohio, Destruction of AO by Chlorinolysis, September 1972 – July 1974

Pranburi Military Reservation, Thailand, April 1964 – April 1965
Activity Description: The objectives of the Thailand tests were to (1) determine minimal rates and volumes of Herbicide Purple, component 2,4,5-T butyl and isobutyl esters (Herbicide Pink), Dinoxol (31.6% butoxyethanol ester of 2,4-D and 30.3% butoxyethanol ester of 2,4,5-T), and Herbicide Blue applied at different seasons of the year for effective defoliation; and, (2) evaluate the effectiveness of other selected defoliants, desiccants, and herbicides applied singly or in combination mixtures at different seasons of the year on representative vegetation of Southeast Asia.
Assessment: The test site locations were established on the Pranburi Military Reservation. Arrangements were made with Thai governmental authorities to use the facilities of the Ministry of Communications Airport at Hua Hin (25 miles from the test site) as a base of operations for the twin engine Beechcraft (C-45) used for test applications. Survey and preparations of two test sites were initiated in August 1963. Lanes were cleared to mark boundaries of a series of 10-acre test plots for a total of 1450 and 2000 acres of treatment at the two test sites, respectively. The trials began on 2 April 1964 and continued through 8 September 1964 with duplicate 10-acre plots treated with each chemical mixture using three 100-foot swaths per plot flown at a height of 30 to 50 feet above treetops. Evaluations of vegetative responses to chemical treatments were made at periodic intervals, and primarily by photographic techniques. Observations continued for one year after treatment.

During the period from April through September 1964, approximately 115 gallons of Herbicide Purple, 46 gallons of Herbicide Pink, 21 gallons of Dinoxol and 15 gallons of Herbicide Blue were aerially sprayed on 170 acres of Pranburi Military Reservation, Thailand. Five civilians and 5 military personnel from Fort Detrick, Maryland, conducted the spray operations and subsequent research. Approximately 25 Thai civilian workers were involved in the preparation of the test sites, and 4 US civilian workers were involved in evaluating the results of the spraying through the end of September 1964.

Preston, Maryland, October 1967
Activity Description: Under a contract with the Air Force Armament Laboratory, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, the Tidewater AG Systems Company was tasked with developing new spray nozzles for the UC-123B Internal Modular Spray System. The purpose of the visit to the Tidewater AG Systems Facilities in Preston, Maryland, was to evaluate the new spray nozzle for potential use on the A/A 45Y-1 Spray System used in Operation RANCH HAND.
Assessment: A crop dusting aircraft was outfitted with the AG nozzles and flown at an altitude of approximately 20 feet above ground level, and at an estimated 95 mph air speed. The Orange Herbicide was mixed with kerosene and was sprayed over a line of kromekote cards spaced at two-foot intervals for two hundred feet. The droplet size was estimated to be 100 microns. The evaluation was observed on-site by the military and civilian representatives to the Defoliant/Anticrop Subcommittee of the JTCG Technical Coordinating Group. Three employees of the Tidewater AG Systems Company participated in the test and evaluation.

Prosser, Washington

Tennessee Valley Authority Power Line Right-of-Way, May 1964 – October 1965
Activity Description: The successful screening of candidate defoliants at Fort Ritchie and Fort Meade prompted Fort Detrick personnel to seek additional sites where a more extensive evaluation could be conducted on Herbicide Orange, Picloram-2,4-D (Herbicide White formulation), and with various combinations of the commercial herbicides diquat and dicamba. The objective of the field tests was to evaluate these formulations under field conditions against the standard tactical herbicide “Purple”. The Crops Division arranged with Georgia Power Company and Tennessee Valley Authority for the use of 65 acres of right-of-way through the swamps of Georgia, and additional 65 acres of right-of-way in the mountains of Tennessee. The test sites selected in Georgia were characterized by swamp forest vegetation with a long, hot, growing season and ample water available for active growth. Typically, the level of water in the swamp was between 6 and 24 inches. Sections of the right-of-ways for the Valdosta- Thomasville Power Line and the Bonaire Power Line near Macon were selected for treatment. In Tennessee, a section of the 200-foot right-of-way provided by the Tennessee Valley Authority was in a mountainous area and on a power line between Hiwassee Dam, North Carolina, and Coker Creek, Tennessee.
Assessment: The aerial spray tests conducted on these transmission line right-ofways were by helicopter. In Georgia, six plots, each 60 by 2,640 feet, were treated on the Valdosta-Thomasville line, which had a 60-foot right-of-way. On the Bonaire line, with 200-foot wide right-of-way, seven plots were established each 200 feet wide and 700 feet long. At both locations, Herbicides Orange and Purple were applied at 10 lbs/A. The proposed Herbicide White formulation was applied at 4 lbs/A picloram and 11 lbs/A 2,4- D. In the aerial tests in Tennessee, the plots were difficult to mark because of the mountainous terrain, and thus the right-of-way (approximately 3 acres between adjacent powerline towers), served as the tests plots. The Orange and Purple Herbicides were applied at 4, 8, and 33 lbs/A. The proposed White formulation was sprayed at rates of 6.25, 11.50, 19.10, and 25.5 lbs/A. The plots in Georgia were sprayed on 20-23 May 1964. The plots in Tennessee were sprayed 17 June and 2-3 July 1964.

The Bell G-3 helicopter used in all tests was equipped with two 60-gallon saddle tanks and a 24-foot boom rigged amidship. Twenty-four D-8 nozzles without swirl plates were placed on 1-foot centers along the boom. The helicopter sprayed a 50-foot swath at an altitude of approximately 60 feet above the ground. All applications were made either just after sunrise or just before sunset when wind velocities were between 0 and 3 mph. Observations on all the plots in both Georgia and Tennessee were made over a period of one year. The Companies provided the helicopter and operators. The herbicide formulations and on-site personnel were provided by Fort Detrick.

Texas, Five Locations including Llano, Refugio, Victoria, Carlos, and Livingston, March 1963 – June 1967

The Korean demilitarized zone in 1968 and 1969 (extensive spraying) Units in the area during the period of use of herbicide were as follows: The four combat brigades of the 2nd Infantry Division. This includes the following units: a) 1-38 Infantry b) 2-38 Infantry c) 1-23 Infantry d) 2-23 Infantry e) 3-23 Infantry f) 3-32 Infantry g) 109th Infantry h) 209th Infantry i) 1-72 Armor j) 2-72 Armor k) 4-7th Cavalry. 3rd Brigade of the 7th. Infantry Division. This includes the following units: a) 1-17th Infantry b) 2-17th Infantry c) 1-73 Armor d) 2-10th Cavalry. Field Artillery, Signal and Engineer troops were supplied as support personnel as required. The estimated number of exposed personnel is 12,056.

The Outport, Gulfport, Mississippi, 17 August – 7 November 1969

USDA Experimental Fields, Gallatin Valley, Bozeman, Montana, July – August 1953
Activity Description: In 1951, the US Army Chemical Corps evaluated the phytotoxicity of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T on broadleaf crops. The question remained as to whether the phenoxy herbicides were equally phytotoxic to narrow leaf grain crops. Thus, a preliminary series of field evaluations were conduced of various 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T formulations as anti-crop agents against wheat. The tests were conducted at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Research Center in the Gallatin Valley near Bozeman, Montana.
Assessment: The objective of these experiments conducted on wheat was to determine the feasibility of applying very small amounts of candidate anti-crop agents from a spray boom mounted on a light aircraft. The tests took place in July 1953 on 139 acres of hard red spring wheat. Four chemical agents were formulated by the Crop Division’s Biological Laboratories, Camp Detrick, Maryland, and consisted of various mixtures of n-butyl, isobutyl and amyl formulations of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. The mixture of concentrated butyl 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T [50% butyl 2,4-D, 25% butyl 2,4,5-T, and 25% isobutyl 2,4,5-T – Herbicide Purple] was applied at rates from 0.03 to 4.18 lbs/A in four replications of plots within the 139 acres of wheat. The mixtures were sprayed from an altitude of 30 feet. Total quantity for all formulations of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T was less than 55 gallons. Personnel involved were from either the USDA or from Camp Detrick.

USDA Station, Brawley California, 1951

Van Nuys, California, Incineration Tests on AO, October 1973 – April 1974

Wayside and Wilcox, Mississippi

Western Oregon, Reforestation Tests, 15 May 1973 – 1 June 1974

Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio

Soil Biodegradation Studies of AO, in Five Locations Florida, Kansas, Utah, Oregon, and Washington, April 1972 – March 1979
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